Android Architecture

The Android Architecture, includes the following,

Linux Kernel

Linux kernel is the base of the Android platform. The kernel gives more features to Android, and the OS can take advantage of vital security features. The foundation of the Android platform is the Linux kernel. Example, Android Runtime relies on the Linux kernel for functionalities such as threading.

Hardware Abstraction Layer

The hardware abstraction layer (HAL) consists of modules to implement an interface for a particular hardware component such as sensors, Bluetooth, camera module and others. The standard interfaces are provided by this layer that works to expose device hardware capabilities to the higher-level Java API framework

Android Architecture Insight

Android Runtime (ART)

Android Runtime run multiple virtual machines on low-memory devices and provides excellent features such as to optimize garbage collection (GC), give enhanced debugging support, Ahead-of-time (AOT) compilation, just-in-time (JIT) compilation, etc.


Core Android system components such as Android Runtime (ART) are built from native code. The native code requires native libraries written in C and C++.  Java framework APIs is provided by the Android platform to render the functionality of these native libraries to apps.

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