Transmission Impairments in Data Communication

Whenever a signal is sent from sender, the receiver in the same form may not receive it. It can be somewhat different, due to flaws in the media, used to send it. To understand it better, transmission impairments in data communication are divided into the following three categories,


Whenever a signal passes, it faces loss of energy. This happens to overcome the resistance of medium.

To compensate the signal loss, amplifiers are used. Amplifiers amplify the signal.



As the name tells, Noise is a random fluctuation in a signal. It is an undesirable electrical energy, which is annoying.


The following are the three types of Noise:

  • Thermal Noise
  • Induced Noise
  • Crosstalk

Thermal Noise:

Random motion of electrons in a wire creates extra signal.

Induced Noise:

The noise comes from motors.


The noise comes when another wire affects a wire.


When signal changes its form, it is known as distortion. If at the receiving end, the components are out of phase, it means distortion occurred.

In the example below, Point1 is connected to Poin2 with a Transmission Medium.

Distortion Transmission Impairments

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Compare Guided and UnGuided Transmission Media
Performance of Transmission Medium
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