Computer Networks Protocols & Standards

In this lesson, we will learn about the protocols and standards, which provides a set of rules and guidelines. Let’s discuss about Computer Networks Protocols & Standards.


A set of rules governing data communication is called protocol. These rules help in data communication, with connected devices and govern all aspects of information communication.

Here are the elements of Protocol,


Structure of data is known as Syntax. The order in which data is presented also comes under syntax. As example can be, first 2 bits of data is address of sender, next 2 bits address of receiver, and rest bits are the actual data, sent from sender to receiver.


Semantic is the relation between sections of bits.


Timing, as the name says, under communication is when the data is to be sent and how quick it will be sent. For example, sender and receiver devices have a capability of handling 10GB of data in a minute.


Through standards, a product works and is widely used regardless of individual manufacturer. Standards provide guidelines for vendors, and manufactures, for designing a product. This leads to open and competitive market for manufacturers. Here are the two forms of standards,

De jure (by regulation)

These standards are legislated by an officially recognized body i.e. the standards governed by law are known as De jure standards.

De facto (by convention)

Unlike De jure, these standards aren’t approved by an organized body, but still widely adopted as standards.  Here are the two forms,

Proprietory Standards

These are the standards that were introduced by a commercial organization, so it got the name, Proprietory Standards. They introduced it as a format of operation of its equipments only, so they are also called closed.

Non-Proprietory Standards

These are the standards that were introduced by committees, so it got the name, Non-Proprietory Standards. The groups introduced these standards and are also known as open, since it is open to be followed and accepted by different equipments developed by different manufacturers.


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Introduction to Computer Networks
Computer Networks Line Configuration
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